Konzeption, Aufbau und Erprobung eines Verfahrens zur Optimierung wellenbasierter Umfeldüberwachungssysteme für fahrerlose Flurförderfahrzeuge

Urban, Alexander

Die Abbildung der Umwelt mittels aktiver Sensorsysteme sowohl zur Bestimmung der eigenen Position als auch zur Erfassung der relativen Position relevanter Objekte in der unmittelbaren Umgebung zur Gewährleistung der für autonome Systeme geforderten Sicherheitsvorgaben stellt nach wie vor eine der Kernherausforderungen bei der Steigerung des Automatisierungsgrads industrieller Anwendungen dar. Aus diesem Grund ist eine Vielzahl wissenschaftlicher Publikationen den Themenkomplexen der industriellen Automatisierung gewidmet. Im Rahmen der vorliegenden Arbeit wird ein Verfahren vorgestellt, welches die Umgebungsabbildung mittels wellenbasierter Sensorik für autonome Förderfahrzeuge verbessern soll. Das Verfahren steigert hierzu die Eindeutigkeit der Umgebungsabbildung aktiver, wellenbasierter Round-Trip-Time-of-Flight (RTOF) Mehr- und Einzelwandlersysteme durch eine räumliche Filterung der empfangenen Signale. Das Prinzip beruht dabei auf der Korrelation hypothetischer, a priori berechneter Signalprofile mit den tatsächlich von dem Wandlersystem empfangenen Echos. Im Rahmen dieser Arbeit wird das Filter für Linienreflektoren wie etwa Wände beschrieben, ist jedoch prinzipiell für beliebige Objektklassen anwendbar. Für die Validierung des beschriebenen Optimalfilters für Linienreflektoren wird ein handbetriebenes Messfahrzeug gezeigt, welches mit einem 4- bzw. 1-Kanal Ultraschallsystem, der dafür notwendigen Steuerelektronik, Sensoren zur Erfassung der Odometrie sowie mit einem Kamerasystem ausgestattet ist. Die Signalverarbeitung wird auf einem angeschlossenen Standardrechner in Matlab implementiert. Im Rahmen der durchgeführten Erprobung des Systems werden verschiedene Szenarien untersucht, welche im industriellen Umfeld anzutreffen sind, und somit eine Relevanz für die autonome Führung von Flurförderfahrzeugen besitzen. Die Versuche zeigen, dass das Verfahren dazu geeignet ist, die Umgebungsabbildung aktuell eingesetzter Systeme zu verbessern bzw. Systeme zur Absolutpositionierung im Bereich der Kollisionsvermeidung zu unterstützen. Das vorgestellte Verfahren ist auf alle wellenbasierten Systeme anwendbar. Einen vielversprechenden nächsten Schritt stellt die Adaption des Verfahrens für elektromagnetische Messsysteme wie etwa frequenzmodulierte Dauerstrichradare (FMCW) hoher Bandbreite dar. Eine hohe Bandbreite und damit sehr feine Distanzauflösung ist dabei vor allem für die Trennung von Punktzielen und starken Linienreflektoren empfehlenswert. Weiterhin wäre eine Implementation für weitere Objektklassen wie etwa Kreisbogen sehr interessant, da sich aus diesen, in Abhängigkeit vom jeweiligen Radius, ebenfalls vielfältige Konturen abbilden lassen. Dies wäre jedoch mit einem dreidimensionalen Parameterraum verbunden, was wiederum einen höheren Rechenaufwand bedeutet.

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The measurements show that the metho d is well suited to improve the environmental d is well suited to improve the environmental d is well suited to improve the environmental d is well suited to improve the environmental d is well suited to improve the environmental d is well suited to improve the environmental d is well suited to improve the environmental d is well suited to improve the environmental d is well suited to improve the environmental d is well suited to improve the environmental d is well suited to improve the environmental mapping of wave based sensor systems. mapping of wave based sensor systems. mapping of wave based sensor systems. mapping of wave based sensor systems. mapping of wave based sensor systems. mapping of wave based sensor systems. mapping of wave based sensor systems. mapping of wave based sensor systems. mapping of wave based sensor systems. mapping of wave based sensor systems. mapping of wave based sensor systems. mapping of wave based sensor systems. mapping of wave based sensor systems. mapping of wave based sensor systems. The presented method can be applied The presented method can be applied The presented method can be applied The presented method can be applied The presented method can be applied The presented method can be applied The presented method can be applied The presented method can be applied The presented method can be applied The presented method can be applied The presented method can be applied The presented method can be applied The presented method can be applied The presented method can be applied The presented method can be applied The presented method can be applied The presented method can be applied to any active wave based sensor system like ultrasonics any active wave based sensor system like ultrasonics any active wave based sensor system like ultrasonics any active wave based sensor system like ultrasonics any active wave based sensor system like ultrasonics any active wave based sensor system like ultrasonics any active wave based sensor system like ultrasonics any active wave based sensor system like ultrasonics any active wave based sensor system like ultrasonics any active wave based sensor system like ultrasonics any active wave based sensor system like ultrasonics any active wave based sensor system like ultrasonics any active wave based sensor system like ultrasonics any active wave based sensor system like ultrasonics any active wave based sensor system like ultrasonics any active wave based sensor system like ultrasonics any active wave based sensor system like ultrasonics any active wave based sensor system like ultrasonics any active wave based sensor system like ultrasonics any active wave based sensor system like ultrasonics any active wave based sensor system like ultrasonics any active wave based sensor system like ultrasonics any active wave based sensor system like ultrasonics any active wave based sensor system like ultrasonics any active wave based sensor system like ultrasonics any active wave based sensor system like ultrasonics any active wave based sensor system like ultrasonics any active wave based sensor system like ultrasonics any active wave based sensor system like ultrasonics any active wave based sensor system like ultrasonics any active wave based sensor system like ultrasonics any active wave based sensor system like ultrasonics any active wave based sensor system like ultrasonics any active wave based sensor system like ultrasonics and radar systems. Especially ultraand radar systems. Especially ultra and radar systems. Especially ultra and radar systems. Especially ultra and radar systems. Especially ultra and radar systems. Especially ultraand radar systems. Especially ultraand radar systems. Especially ultra and radar systems. Especially ultra and radar systems. Especially ultraand radar systems. Especially ultra and radar systems. Especially ultraand radar systems. Especially ultraand radar systems. Especially ultra and radar systems. Especially ultraand radar systems. Especially ultra wide band systems should per band systems should per band systems should perband systems should perband systems should perband systems should per band systems should per band systems should per band systems should per band systems should perform well using thorm well using thorm well using th orm well using th orm well using th orm well using thorm well using th orm well using thorm well using th e presented method. presented method. presented method. presented method.

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Urban, Alexander: Konzeption, Aufbau und Erprobung eines Verfahrens zur Optimierung wellenbasierter Umfeldüberwachungssysteme für fahrerlose Flurförderfahrzeuge. 2014.

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