Toxic gas emissions from damaged lithium ion batteries - analysis and safety enhancement solution

Nedjalkov, Antonio; Meyer, Jan; Köhring, Michael; Doering, Alexander; Angelmahr, Martin GND; Dahle, Sebastian GND; Sander, Andreas; Fischer, Axel; Schade, Wolfgang GND

Lithium ion batteries play an increasing role in everyday life, giving power to handheld devices or being used in stationary storage solutions. Especially for medium or large scale solutions, the latter application confines a huge amount of energy within a small volume; however, increasing the hazard potential far above the common level. Furthermore, as the safety hazards of lithium ion cells have been known for years, impressively shown by several burning cars or laptops, the need for a further enhancement of the safety of these systems is rising. This manuscript presents measurements of the gas emission from lithium ion batteries in case of a malfunction for different scenarios, showing a large variety of species with mostly toxic to highly toxic properties. The measurements were carried out using a combination of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), quadrupole mass spectrometry (QMS), photoacoustic spectroscopy, and chemical analysis. It is shown that the inflammation of a cell can be overcome, also preventing a cascading effect to neighboring cells, but giving rise to worse toxic gas emission. Furthermore, a filtration concept is presented that decreases the concentration of the emitted components significantly and promises filtration below immediately dangerous to life or health (IDLH) equivalent levels.

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Nedjalkov, Antonio / Meyer, Jan / Köhring, Michael / et al: Toxic gas emissions from damaged lithium ion batteries - analysis and safety enhancement solution. 2016.

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