Anisotropy of permeability, P-wave velocity and electrical resistivity of Upper Cretaceous carbonate samples from Tushka Area, Western Desert, Egypt
Petrophysical properties (such as porosity, permeability, grain density, bulk density, electrical resistivity, and P-wave velocity), as well as the anisotropy of the permeability, seismic velocity (P-wave velocity) and electrical resistivity were characterized in 42 carbonates (limestone) rock samples, collected from shallow wells (seven wells encountered the Upper Cretaceous carbonate rocks with variation in thickness, where well 1 encountered 50 ft thick Nubian sandstone, which decreased to about 30 ft thickness in well 7) from Tushka area, Egypt. The petrographic investigation of the studied carbonate rock samples shows three microfacies associations: Facies1 (MFA-1) is mainly an oolitic, low dolomitic and low glauconitic, fossil-rich packstone with a tendency towards floatstone or rudstone, Facies 2 (MFA-2) is mainly a glauconite rich, low dolomitic floatstone with some tendencies towards rudstone and Facies3 (MFA-3) is mainly a sparry calcite-cemented, low dolomitic rudstone rich in glauconite and iron minerals. The MFA-2 with the lowest average density and highest average porosity is characterized by a strong anisotropy of both permeability and electrical resistivity. The values of the anisotropy ratio of seismic velocity (P-wave velocity) are close to one for all facies, this means that no anisotropy can be detected in the seismic velocity. A comparison between the coefficients of anisotropy reveals that the anisotropy of electrical resistivity and permeability are related to each other.