Energy-stable time-domain finite element methods for the 3D nonlinear Maxwell’s equations
In this paper, time-domain finite element methods for the full system of Maxwell’s equations with cubic nonlinearities in 3D are presented, including a selection of computational experiments. The new capabilities of these methods are to efficiently model linear and nonlinear effects of the electrical polarization. The novel strategy has been developed to bring under control the discrete nonlinearity model in space and time. It results in energy stable discretizations both at the semi-discrete and the fully discrete levels, with spatial discretization using edge and face elements (Nédeléc-Raviart-Thomas formulation). In particular, the proposed time discretization schemes are unconditionally stable with respect to a specially defined nonlinear electromagnetic energy, which is an upper bound of the electromagnetic energy commonly used. The approaches presented prove to be robust and allow the modeling of 3D optical problems that can be directly derived from the full system of Maxwell’s nonlinear equations, and allow the treatment of complex nonlinearities and geometries of various physical systems coupled with electromagnetic fields.