Compressional-wave effects in the operation of a quartz crystal microbalance in liquids : dependence on overtone order
The operation of the quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) in liquids is plagued by small flexural admixtures to the thickness-shear deformation. The resonator surface moves not only in the transverse direction, but also along the surface normal, thereby emitting compressional waves into the liquid. Using a simple analytical model and laser Doppler vibrometry, we show that the flexural admixtures are stronger on the fundamental mode than on the overtones. The normal amplitude of motion amounts to about 1% of the transverse motion on the fundamental mode. This ratio drops by a factor of two on the overtones. A similar dependence on overtone order is observed in experiments, where the resonator is immersed in a liquid and faces an opposite planar wall, the distance of which varies. Standing compressional waves occur at certain distances. The amplitudes of these are smaller on the overtones than on the fundamental mode. The findings can be rationalized with the tensor form of the small-load approximation.