Process design and optimization towards digital twins for HIV-gag VLP production in HEK293 cells, including purification
Despite great efforts to develop a vaccine against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which causes AIDS if untreated, no approved HIV vaccine is available to date. A promising class of vaccines are virus-like particles (VLPs), which were shown to be very effective for the prevention of other diseases. In this study, production of HI-VLPs using different 293F cell lines, followed by a three-step purification of HI-VLPs, was conducted. The quality-by-design-based process development was supported by process analytical technology (PAT). The HI-VLP concentration increased 12.5-fold while >80% purity was achieved. This article reports on the first general process development and optimization up to purification. Further research will focus on process development for polishing and formulation up to lyophilization. In addition, process analytical technology and process modeling for process automation and optimization by digital twins in the context of quality-by-design framework will be developed.