Comparison of model-based and sensor-based detection of thermal runaway in Li-ion battery modules for automotive application

Klink, Jacob; Hebenbrock, André; Grabow, Jens; Orazov, Nury; Nylén, Ulf; Benger, Ralf GND; Beck, Hans-Peter GND

In recent years, research on lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery safety and fault detection has become an important topic providing a broad range of methods for evaluating the cell state based on voltage and temperature measurements. However, other measurement quantities and close-to-application test setups were only sparsely considered yet, not has been a comparison in between methods. In this work the feasibility of a multi-sensor setup for detection of Thermal Runaway failure of automotive-size Li-ion battery modules have been investigated in comparison to a model-based approach. For experimental validation Thermal Runaway tests were conducted in a close-to-application configuration of module and battery case – triggered by external heating with two different heating rates. By two repetitions of each experiment high accordance of characteristics and results has been achieved and the signal feasibility for fault detection has been discussed. The before published model-based method recognised the thermal fault in the fastest way – significantly previously the required 5 min pre-warning time. This requirement was also achieved with smoke and gas sensors in most test runs. Additional criteria for evaluating detection approaches besides detection time have been discussed to provide a good starting point for choosing a suitable approach dependent on application defined requirements e.g. acceptable complexity.

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Klink, Jacob / Hebenbrock, André / Grabow, Jens / et al: Comparison of model-based and sensor-based detection of thermal runaway in Li-ion battery modules for automotive application. 2022.

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