A modulation QCM applied to copper electrodeposition and stripping
A fast electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (EQCM−D) was applied to copper electrodeposition and subsequent stripping. Accumulation brings the frequency noise down to the mHz range, corresponding to 0.1 % of a monolayer. With this precision, the apparent mass transfer rate as determined from the time-derivative of the frequency shift can be directly compared to the current. Small but systematic deviations between the two can be attributed to nanoscale roughness. In the voltage range of underpotential deposition (UPD), the apparent mass transfer rate shows peaks and shoulders. The plating additive benzotriazole (BTA) leaves the magnitude of electrogravimetric signals unchanged, but shifts the UPD onset potential. The additive thiourea (TU) promotes UPD and strongly increases the bandwidth.